I. Supplementary explanation for 付け足し言葉

Yep, I understand. I'm Mr. Understand.

The "shochi-nosuke" that comes after "gatten" is a personification of another word for "understand" or "grasp" (shochi) made by adding "-nosuke," once often used for the second part of many boy's/men's names.

Surprise, peach tree, pepper tree.

Rhythmic puns to echo the "ki" of "odoroki."

Is there something you want me to do? On the ninth or tenth? (For nine, ten days?)

A question that is a chain of puns imbedded in a list of dates: "Nanika" (what/is there [something]) puns with "nanoka" (seven days/seventh day), and "yoka" (something to do/business) puns with "yoka" (eight days/eighth day), followed by "kokonoka" (nine days/ninth day) and "toka" (ten days/tenth day).

You're lying, a big Tsukiji temple lie.

The "tsuku" of "uso o tsuku" (to tell a lie) overlaps with the "tsuki" of the place name Tsukiji, the site of a famous temple called Gomonzeki.

II. Expansion idea for Iruka activity

Objective: To make a rhythmical poem in Japanese
Level: High school students
1) Once students are able to recite "Iruka," suggest that they create their own Japanese poem with the same rhythm as "Iruka." Explain syllables and rhyming (Note 1), and provide an example.

Example: "Kojika" (Baby Deer)

くるか こないか Are you coming, or are you not?
こないか くるか Are you not, or are you coming?
くるくる こじか Come, come, baby deer
(こいぬ, こねこ, こりす, こやぎ: puppy, kitten, baby squirrel, lamb, etc.)
いっぱい こじか Many many baby deer
○○○○ こじか ○○○○ baby deer (four-syllable words such as かわいい, はねてる, はねるよ, ころがる, ちゃいろ, etc.)
○○○○ こじか ○○○○ baby deer
(four-syllable words different from the line above)

2) Create a poem using verbs that fit the number of syllables in the poem, such as する or みる.
Example: "Shukudai" (Homework)

×するか しないか Will I do it, will I not
しないか するか× Will I not, or will I
たくさん しゅくだい Lots of homework
いやいや しゅくだい Don't want to do homework
ぜったい しない× I absolutely will not do it
しないぞ しゅくだい Will not do it, my homework

III. Expansion idea for Kappa activity

Objective: To make rhythmical poems in Japanese
Level: High school
1) Using the rhythm from "Kappa," have students create poems in groups. Have students present each poem and select the best poem in the class. Students may use dictionaries, or teachers may want to prepare cards listing words* that may be used for the poems, which each group can rearrange to create phrases that make sense.

*Words that may be used (example)
[ ]= yomigana
Verbs (te- or ta-form):
待って[まって] wait, 立って[たって] stand, 打って[うって] strike, 言って[いって] say, 会って[あって] meet, 折って[おって] break, 切って[きって] cut, 知って[しって] know, やった done
Other words: 三日[みっか] three days, 四日[よっか] four days, 三つ[みっつ] three, 四つ[よっつ] four, 六つ[むっつ] six, 八つ[やっつ] eight, 作家[さっか] writers, 結果[けっか] results, 楽器[がっき] musical instruments, 日記[にっき] diary, 切符[きっぷ] tickets, 雑誌[ざっし] magazine, いっしょtogether, やっとfinally, ちょっとa little, どっちwhere, こっちhere, そっちthere, あっちthere, バットbat, ベッドbed, ポットpot, ペットpet, セットset, バッジbadge, ポップpop, ロックrock, チェックcheck

切手[きって] 買って[かって] きっと買って[かって] 持って[もって] 行って[いって]ね。
Buy a stamp, make sure to buy a stamp, and take it with you

きっと売って[うって] マッチ売って[うって] もっと売って[うって]よ。
Make sure you sell, sell the matches, sell more matchesIV. More Pre-activities

IV. More Pre-activities

(1) Awareness of the body
a) Breathing exercises:
Focus attention on each part of the body, one by one. Spread the legs shoulder-width apart, slightly bend the knees, close the eyes, slowly breathe abdominally in and out. Repeat.

b) Kiai (spirit):
Perhaps in movies, you've heard people yell when they make a move in karate or kendo. That vocalized energy is called kiai. Kiai has the meaning of synchronizing breathing with action. It is a cry emitted when mind and body are fully concentrated on something. Choose a movement. For example, you might decide on a karate move in which you thrust an arm out as you take a step forward. Concentrating your mind and breathing on the action, yell, letting the sound come from your belly, "ei!" "yaa!" or "to!" as you perform the movement.

c) Shikodachi kataire (deep knee bends [sumo stance] and shoulder twisting):
This is a warm-up exercise used commonly in Japanese martial arts. Some of you may have heard that major leaguer Suzuki Ichiro does these exercises. Introduce the exercise to the students by showing an illustration or demonstrate it for them. Have students try it without overdoing it, enabling them to understand that it is not such an easy exercise (it takes training to do it well).

Illustration: Maeda Sumiko

(2) One-minute meditation to sharpen the senses
d) Alert listening: With eyes closed, concentrate on the sounds inside and outside the classroom. As in the Japanese expression
みみをすます (すむ means "to be clear"), imagine your ability to listen to be as clear as a spring when the mud in the water has settled to the bottom. Calm the spirit, think about nothing, and listen carefully. For one minute with eyes still closed, imagine the spring becoming clearer and clearer. Open your eyes. What did you hear? What did you feel?

V. Other Activities

(1) Taking a Shot at Classical Japanese
Allow the class to listen to "Machigai no kyogen" and "Jugemu," available on the Nihongo de asobo website at http://wmg.jp/nihongo/. Have each student choose a favorite phrase from "Jugemu." Why not make each selected phrase a magic spell the students will chant when he or she is unwilling or unable to answer when called upon in class and wants someone else to be called upon. Listening to and imitating the rich vocalization and the easy rhythm of "Machigai no kyogen" can also be a refreshing exercise in the classroom. If you are able to get a hold of the DVD, you may want to try it with the movements as well.

(2) Shiritori
Shiri means the rear end or the end of something, and tori means "to take." Shiritori is a game in which you take the last syllable of the word (noun) said by the person before you and say a word that begins with the same syllable. Because there are no words that begin with ん in the Japanese language, you may not say a word that ends with it. You lose if you cannot think of an appropriate word during your turn.

In the classroom: Explain how the game is played, and have the class compete against each other in groups to see which group can maintain the longest sequence.
On the stage: Using hiragana cards, show the audience a shiritori sequence that the class has already made, and pronounce each word. Students holding the cards for a word stand next to each other. The student holding the last card of a word moves away slightly to begin the next word. (Indicate with an illustration.)

After all the words have been lined up, read each letter from the beginning. Every time one word ends and another begins, the student holding the last card shifts to the beginning of the next word.

*You will need large cards on the stage, but when playing the game in the classrooms, you may use cards that are small enough to line up on desks.

(3) Heno heno moheji Contest
Ekaki uta (game in which one sings an instructional or descriptive song of the picture being drawn simultaneously) called heno heno moheji in which one draws a face using letters. Show students how to draw a face using hiragana. Provide hints, and have students come up with their own creations.

Hiragana and katakana that may be easily used in heno heno moheji:
Eyes めめ、のの、ぬぬ、メメ ヨヨ
Eyes and eyebrows ここ、ニニ、ミミ
Eyebrows へへ、ハ
Nose し、も、く、ム
Mouth へ、ロ
Facial outline し、つ、て、ひ、フ、ワ、レ

(4) Hayakuchi kotoba
There is a Japanese learner who claims that "nakereba narimasen" sounds like hayakuchi kotoba, citing the difficulty in pronouncing the phrase. It is possible to turn difficult-to-pronounce phrases into a game, seeing who can say the phrase as smoothly as possible, as quickly as possible. Why not try it with a rhyme?

Everyone must look
You must read in the middle of the night
At the next opportunity, you must listen to the sound of the machine

Here is another hayakuchi kotoba whose meaning is easy to understand.

Plums and peaches are both of the peach family.
Raw wheat, raw rice, raw eggs.
A monk painted a picture of a monk on a folding screen very well.
In the garden, there are two chickens.

(5) Mimi o sumasu
If your students are well-read and interested in intellectually stimulating challenges, we recommend introducing them to the poem by Tanikawa Shuntaro titled "Mimi o sumasu."

1. First the teacher should draw students' attention to the difference in nuances between mimi o sumasu and "listen to." Unlike "listen to," which suggests intentionally listening for some particular sound, mimi o sumasu means "emptying yourself; clearing your mind so that you can hear clearly." Then take up part of the poem, explain its meaning, and read it out loud.

2. Separate the students into groups and assign one verse to each group. Have each group study the meaning of the verse assigned, with the help of a dictionary, and then explain it to the class.

3. Enjoy reading out loud, the whole poem or the parts students particularly like.

One interesting expansion is to compare "Mimi o sumasu" to Paul Eluard's "Liberty." Both are poems of great beauty and power, but the contrast between the Japanese poem, where the subject (the self as an identity with a will) does not appear, and the French poem, which pronounces the intentional act of the person over and over, brings out the differences in ways of thinking in the two languages and cultures.

(6) Singing Activities
There are many singing activities for the purpose of learning Japanese; some for learning the te-form of verbs or for learning counter suffixes. Please refer to the following list for helpful website information and other ideas.

Lesson plans using songs in language class.

This site for Spanish teachers offers many useful ideas.

A website loaded with fabulous ideas and tips for teaching Japanese using songs!

Songs for Japanese language learners.

A collection of Christmas carols in different languages.

Te-form songs online.

*The following sites are in Japanese only.
Songs with gestures

Songs for children with lyrics and melody

Site giving song lyrics, including those for new songs. Best-selling songs and karaoke top 10 included.

Kaeuta (parody songs)

To learn order of the phonetic alphabet
To the tune of "A-B-C Song"
Author: Ruth Kanagy ("Living Abroad in Japan" http://LivingAbroadinJapan.com)

みんなで うたいましょう

To learn AIUEO
To the tune of "Jingle Bells"


(In the Jingle Bells verse section)

To learn ookii/chiisai
"Ookina Taiko"

*Corresponding hand motions showing a big/small taiko
*There are ooki-na and chiisa-na in original lyrics, but you can just change those words with ooki-i and chiisa-i.

To learn seasons and adjectives

" Shiki no Uta"

To learn seasons and adjectives
To the tune of "A-B-C Song"
Author: Sheila Baumgardner

Students will choose the season they like for the blank.

なつは あつい
あきは すずしい
ふゆは さむい
はるは あたたかい
わたしの すきな きせつは_____です。

Note: You can also practice conjugation of verbs and adjectives to the rhythm of dance tunes with a good beat like Electric Slide and Makarena.

To learn adjective conjugation
Author: Sheila Baumgardner

*Do four sets of each verse.

あつい なつ (move right)
あつくない なつ (move left)
あつかった なつ (move back)
あつくて ながい なつ (rock forward and back, quarter turn)
きれいな はな (move right)
きれいじゃない はな (move left)
きれいだった はな (move back)
きれいで ゴージャスな はな (rock forward and back, quarter turn)

To learn verb conjugation
Author: Sheila Baumgardner

*Use dictionary form and to do-masu or dictionary form and its negative. Possibilities are endless.
*Choose six verbs to do the dance sequence.
*Assign a set of six verbs to various groups and have them perform.

たべる たべない
のむ のまない
みる みない
する しない
きく きかない
かく かかない

Learning plain form of verb conjugation
Author: Sheila Baumgardner

*Vary with other verbs for every side if possible.

きょう みる? (move right)
ううん、みない (move left)
きのう みた? (move back)
ううん、みなかった (rock forward and back)
それで (quarter turn)

To learn te-form
To the tune of "Clementine" (Yukiyama Sanka)

き→いて ぎ→いで
く→いて ぐ→いで

To learn te-form
To the tune of "Santa Clause is Coming to Town"


To learn te-form
To the tune of "Close Your Hands" (Musunde Hiraite) http://www.mahoroba.ne.jp/~gonbe007/hog/shouka/00_songs.html

むすんで ひらいて
てを うって むすんで
また ひらいて てを うって
その てを うえ に
むすんで ひらいて
てを うって むすんで

To learn te-form
To the tune of "Close Your Hands" (Musunde Hiraite) http://www.mahoroba.ne.jp/~gonbe007/hog/shouka/00_songs.html
Author: Yazawa Michiko

*Showing picture cards of the actions.

7じに おきて かおを あらって
ごはんを たべて「いってきます!」
べんきょうを して クラブを して
うちに かえって「ただいま!」
9じに おきて ごはんを たべて
テレビを みて ひるねして
また おきて まんがを よんで
メールを かいて ねます

To learn counters and imasu/arimasu
To the tune of "Ten Little Indians"

ひとり ふたり さんにん います
よにん ごにん ろくにん います
しちにん はちにん きゅうにん います
ぜんぶで/みんなで じゅうにん います
ひとつ ふたつ みっつ あります
よっつ いつつ むっつ あります
ななつ やっつ ここのつ あります
ぜんぶで とお あります

To learn counters and imasu/arimasu
To the tune of "Ten Little Indians"
Author: Yazawa Michiko

*Showing pictures of animate/inanimate objects as cue cards.
*Repeat the melody changing cue cards.

いっぴき にひき さんびき います
よんほん ごほん ろっぽん あります
ななさつ はっさつ きゅうさつ あります

To learn counters
" Ippon demo Ninjin"
Note: Useful for enjoyable learning of counter words.

To learn days of month
To the tune of "Ten Little Indians"

ついたち ふつか みっか どしゃぶり
よっか いつか むいか あめふり
なのか ようか ここのか くもり
とおか に はれて ピクニック

To learn days of month
To the tune of "I'm a Yankee Doodle Dandy"

Author: Urara Kobayashi

ついたち ふつか みっか よっか
いつか むいか なのか ようか
いつか むいか なのか ようか
ここのか とおか

To learn the vocabulary of parts of body
To the tune of "Mary Had a Little Lamb"
Author: Urara Kobayashi

*Touching the part of the body.

め はな くち あたま かみ
あたま かみ
あたま かみ
みみ くび おなか
あし ひざ て ゆび

To learn the vocabulary of parts of body
To the tune of "London Bridge"

*Touching the part of the body.

あたま かた ひざ あし
ひざ あし
ひざ あし
あたま かた ひざ あし
め みみ はな くち

Activity ideas by Yazawa Michiko, Japanese Education Specialist,
the Japan Foundation Japanese-language Institute, Kansai

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